Wormholes Get Weirder – Watch Other Objects Near Wormholes & Learn How I Created The Images

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The second part to my wormhole video project, first we have a few visuals showing what an outside observer sees when another spacecraft crosses through the wormhole or moves around near the entrance.
Secondly, there’s some explanations of the geometry, the shape of the space and illustrations of the way light moves around the entrance to a wormhole.
Finally we take a closer look at the math and how to implement a raytracer to make wormholes, and how I solver problems with the original design to remove glitches make the process 1000 times faster.

The original paper by DNEG & Kip Thorne is here:

Many of the skyboxes are from Eve Online.

  1. MonsterSound

    Scott Manley – Problem Solver Osmium Badge Level Achieved.🏆

  2. Peter Resetz

    With quantum singularities and gravitational lensing a observable reality, worm holes are still nothing more than a theory.

  3. sergey

    That’s a great algorithm you came up with!

  4. Bas Wenmakers

    Wormholes get weirder?! Wow!
    I thought me crashing into my own spacetruck was just another day at the job. Same shit, different space time!

  5. neithere

    Your videos and Feynman’s lectures make me more comfortable with the idea that my intelligence is limited because I begin to understand how exactly it is limited. Thank you.

  6. Viper Corn

    How do you figure out the orientation (left, right, up, down etc) of the worm hole?

  7. Austin Spafford

    Regarding the 3D -> 2D optimization mentioned near the end, that means it might be feasible to build a per-wormhole lookup table as a floating point single-channel 2D texture (mapping camera-distance and camera-ray-angle to output-skybox-angle with the sign denoting which skybox is used), allowing for realtime rendering (be it highly approximated in aliased regions). That then makes me wonder what such a LUT would look like, since it might give a visual “thumbprint” for each set of wormhole parameters.
    Thank you for the excellent visualizations!

  8. Free Saxon

    Ok Scott thanks……. *but* I’ve had a PBS space-time moment 🤔

  9. Zaknafein Do'Urden

    I was trying to use the 360 system with my mouse like last video but then i realized that it is not on VR (=

  10. Tian Cilliers

    Would you be able to make the wormhole link to a region in space in the same universe and possible close to the other mouth? Instead of just defining a second “universe” for the other side. I’m thinking light may do some fancy tricks coming out of one side of the wormhole and going into the other side again

  11. 時計仕掛け

    code on patreon? not something public like github? :(

  12. El Guiñolo

    So, you imply that light is the same between both universes, including its speed… Could you try to model a wormhole between two universes which do not share the same laws of physics ?

  13. Chris Peart

    Just brilliant! Can’t wait to see more

  14. Paul

    Since these are all theoretical, at this time we have no observable proof that they exist. BUT assuming they do, would the light (or other matter/energy) traversing such a wormhole leave or emit some kind of detectable signature, either electromagnetic, subatomic, or gravitational wave that we could use to infer their existence/location?

  15. Mi 28

    Spacetime warping acts the same as normal gravity even if it’s not caused by massive objects warping it. So under certain conditions traversing a wormhole is about as safe as diving into a black hole.

  16. Phlipp Bergamot

    Didn’t EVE have wormholes that looked like this long before Interstellar came along? I might not be accurate with my time line though. perhaps they came after it.

  17. Argenteus

    1:52 You mean spatial lensing? ;)

  18. Jacob Stillwell

    Aaaand that’s why he works at Apple. Brilliant coder, awesome video Scott!

  19. antsolja

    man thats really cool, cant wait till one day stuff like this can be done live in games

  20. Niels

    Wormholes almost give me the same uncomfortable feeling as Trypophobia gives me. It’s weird, but with my little understanding of this subject, it just messes up your brain

  21. atimholt

    What about ray-tracing *in* 4 dimensions, then constraining each integration step to your geometry? It’s a little bit harder with piecewise geometries, though.

  22. Alex Landherr

    You should’ve made the Interstellar effects. Great to not have to hear about the pandemic all the time, other important stuff does happen.

  23. Jim's videos

    4:49 Wiseguy xD

  24. ivan tamborero

    What happens when two objects enter from the “back” and the “front of one end of the wormhole? Do they crash? From the 2D/3D visualization it would seem the wouldn’t, if the aren’t to big ofcourse.
    Awesome video! I wish i could put my mind into doing this type of things.

  25. Pystro

    I just realized that wormholes could theoretically mirror you, if both ends connect to the same volume of real space, but in different places. Note how at 4:48 the rays going in the direction of travel go to the right of the top space, while starting at 4:52 the rays going forward clearly go left in the bottom space. This means that if you don’t want to have some wonky effect on the CPT symmetry of the universe, there would be only 1 way to join the two ends of the wormhole. They would need to be twisted, like the ends of a Mobius loop.
    It would also mean that in this simulation, the skybox of the “negative radius” part of space could appear mirrored (if the way you define it doesn’t account for the mirroring effect).

  26. Santa Paula De Roma

    Nice solution Scott, I wonder if this method also works when the tunnel of the wormhole isn’t actinomorphic (radially symmetrical)?

  27. Albert Nakao

    Us flat-spacers trying to comprehend curved space. Awesome video!

  28. Prot Eus

    This is one of the most awesome videos I’ve seen in youtube. Thanks for providing insight into the process.

  29. Richard Bull

    Marvin’s brain has nothing on yours. I’m in awe.

  30. AngelLestat2

    Great job Scott! You really put a lot of work into these videos. Amazing results.

  31. Sphinx Rising

    First, wait until they have been scientifically proven to exist before you start explaining how you think they may work & what you think they may effect other things.

  32. Arno nümuss

    I think, I’ll have to watch this a second time.

  33. Randall Neikirk

    This is the first proper wire frame imaging of light around a gravitational body that I’ve ever seen!

  34. Robert

    What an amazing undertaking. I hope sci-fi movies/TV/games make use of this at some point. As opposed to just doing that lame colourful cloud in the shape of a tunnel effect.

  35. Hannah Cwik

    Wormholes get weirder and Leon’s getting larger!

  36. Nicholas Smith

    if you can try this in reverse, you could use this to observe a black hole’s firewall/disk to estimate what entered it

  37. Johnny Nielsen

    Well if a wormhole exist as a sphere like a fish-eye lens, then I would have thought, that you just go trough it, and come out of it on the other side just like a door (Stargate comes too mind) Easy peasy. Was the red center not the other side of the wormhole? What if you in entering a wormhole got compressed to a singularity and shot as a energy beam to the other wormhole, where you got decompressed back to normal size? Can gravity not be a physical expression of a compressed space? Would a spacecraft chance size in gravity waves near black holes? Or do they become heavier slash lighter in a gravity wave? Well I’m just asking from the bottom of this gravity well called Earth.

    P.S. Is the Earth compressed a few hundred meters just because of gravity? Just saw the movie Gravity by the way, to much space debris way to fast, otherwise a very good movie.

  38. Flyte Industries

    Next time you do a wormhole video can you use the phrase “crossing the event horizon”….cause it just sounds cool.

  39. Богдан Кондратов

    Someone finally found a good use for ray tracing.

  40. Ty Tonus-Burman

    This honestly just feels like you’re in Eve Online, their wormhole physics are so realistic (as you approach them). You don’t get to see “inside” the wormhole in Eve, cause when you click to enter the wormhole, the game just spits you out on the other side… BUT if you physically, manually fly TOWARDS the wormhole, you get to watch all of space around you distort, as you fall into the gravitational well, and watch the universe get reduced to a small circle at the end of a deep well. It’s awesome!

  41. Dean Su

    Question: does this simulation account for the speed of light? As I understand your raytracing explanation, that sort of implies that a ray of light instantly traverses any geodesic into your eyes, which would be unphysical.

  42. Jacob

    10:00 first time I’ve heard the Scottish pronunciation of Runge Kutta before. I assume you used RK4?

  43. Miki Cerise

    This is amazing!!!! You’re the best Scott. :D

  44. Mystickneon

    Wouldn’t the distorted light be red or blue shifted in different parts of the image due to relativistic effects?

  45. Gonun

    Soo… How does a black hole look like that passes through a wormhole?

  46. George Garcia

    Who’s “we”? Do you have a production team?

  47. David Huber

    I wish I was smart enough to understand more than 2% of this stuff. It’s still fun trying to figure it out. Great video.

  48. party4lifedude

    I feel like these videos would do more for someone’s understanding of wormholes than damn near anything that tries to explain them.

  49. dsagent

    I am listening to this at work, sounds like a college lecture.

  50. Emile van der Merwe

    It’s interesting to hear you use some simplifications that I too thought of when I once had a solve a fluid mechanics problem with a computer, but without existing cfd software.

  51. Hashbrownie inc.

    What would the edge feel like, if say, i tried to put my hand through a Worm Hole that could only fit my finger ? Would it just feel like a solid? Or what ?

  52. Sergio Bassan

    From now on, I’ll call you Albert E. Manley… 😎

  53. TheAmpair

    This is going to be quite a revelation to the Early Bird.

  54. Taylor Kinsey

    Wow. I’m totally amazed with this. I’m working on my own ray tracing project right now, and I’ve been trying to find an actual intuitive explanation for what’s going on so I can ultimately do something like this, and these last couple of videos gave me at least 1000 times more motivation to do that. Math is beautiful. Thank you for making this.

  55. Bjarne S.

    can you connect both planes by forming a (hyper) Torus?

  56. Smith S

    This is so cool Scott!! Thank you for spending the time to do this

  57. Linecraftman

    A list of things I’d like to see!
    – Two worm holes interconnected next to each other
    – An object flying through one and flying out another
    – Looking at an object flying through

  58. Francis Schaeffer

    I love this video. You are one of the best content providers on the web.

  59. Dans Shade

    Some of footage looks like WH to some Caldari space, hopefully not far from Jita…

  60. B F

    Wormholes you say? How coincidental. With self-isolation time on my hands, I am re-watching “Stargate SG-1”.

  61. Daniel Jensen

    That feel when Scott Manley reminds everyone he has a master’s degree in computational physics without actually needing to say it.

  62. Aech Modnar

    Scott, I need either an archive of these images or code… guess I’m gonna become a patron and wait

  63. Lawrence D’Oliveiro

    1:52 Ha! You called it “gravitational lensing”!

  64. Dmytro Picky

    if after that he will continue to say he is not specialist ….

  65. Brian Mulrooney

    Such a novel approach to solving the inefficiency of the previous algorithm! Thanks for taking the time to explain the minutia. Looking forward to your follow up!

  66. Trabber Shir

    6:36 You can calculate pi with 2 circles that you know to be perfectly concentric. All you need is the distance between them and their circumferences. I almost said that makes the calculation trivial in a world with that handy grid you’ve got. Then I had to look up some algebra I haven’t used since college to actually derive the formula for pi. So, it should be trivial for high school students fresh out of freshman algebra, less so for us old geezers.

  67. bazoo513

    When I cool down my brain again and replenish its supply of glucose, I will try watching this again :o)

  68. Lawrence D’Oliveiro

    11:07 I think the mathematical term for this is “gimbal lock”. It’s a well-known hazard of working with Euler angles.

    Hmmm … could you use quaternions as an angular coordinate system instead?

  69. Claxvii 177th

    Programming flex over here! Awesome job, really.

  70. Andreas Karlsson

    I really love this video, but I am a bit distracted by the optical artefacts of the sky box images being distorted by the wormhole. Would have been amazing if the stars had been smaller light sources, with more physically accurate light intensities, and all their halos added in post :-)

  71. Connor King

    No. You need to post the code on GitHub with a free license.

    For science.

  72. Tomorrow Dương

    can’t wait for Scott’s simulation of a warp drive!! This is frekn amazing!!

  73. Monking Flame

    when adding relativistic effects, will you add proper wavelenght shift?

  74. bzqp2

    1:50 – not gravitational lensing! :) Spatial deformation due to how curved the funnel of the wormhole is.

  75. ravneiv

    13:28 sounds like you could optimize the anti-alias algorithm for Image Magic too

  76. Matthew Lind

    Humble request that someone makes a rendering with a wormhole in two different buildings’ rooms. I think the familiarity would help me understand this better. I’m not as used to floating in space somewhere near the rings of saturn.

  77. Stewart Painter

    Is that suggesting that this could project an image into a suitable atmosphere or reflective plain?

  78. ravneiv

    Next video: building a new computer after my last one collapsed into an artificial singularity I created in code. Thankfully it evaporated after consuming my rig

  79. CleverClothe

    Is a single instant of a 360-degree video still called a frame?

  80. Reid H

    But what happens if we drop a spherical cow into the wormhole?

  81. MaxArceus

    Can you make, and then show what happens if the two entries are not literally separate universes, but closer together? Close enough for them to be visible both at once?

  82. Aaron Robinson

    I’m a codec engineer who has done an enormous amount of SIMD optimizations. It would be fun to optimize this algorithm to increase the speed by a few hundred percent or more.

  83. Patrick Tho

    New tech for consumer graphics: Relativistic Raytraicing :)

    (I know that we need also a finite lightspeed)

  84. Simpson

    instead of implementing FXAA or MSAA you basically used super sampling, nothing wrong with that.

  85. Lashy

    Next video: Black Hole flying through a Wormhole and Wormhole flying through a Black Hole.

  86. Bitchute is better than Youtube

    Unlike your last video, i actual find these types of wormholes in my garden.

  87. Paul Paulson

    Runge-Kutta. Nice to hear from it again. Had to dive deep into it when I had to refactor an implementation of it once at work. We wanted to extend our numerical integrator interface to be able to also use external integrators for other purposes like stiff systems etc. Runge Kutta and Runge Kutta Fehlberg are smart algorithms, but for some problems it turned out that a simple Heun with much smaller stepsize provides similar results in shorter computation time. It’s often worth to do the analysis of the stability region first and choose your parameters/algorithm accordingly.

    Also, its behavior of “do some substeps, but don’t actually do them, and revert their effects” comes with some problems if your step function has side effects and you have a naive implementation. Like, telling a motor in a control loop how fast to go. Had to learn it the hard way ;)

  88. Jordan Forrest

    I think you lost me at ‘Hullo’ 🤔

    Interesting non the less!

  89. Jacob Rogers

    I think we need to quarantine Scott more to keep this wonderful content coming.

  90. Zrebbesh

    “Fly safe” in any context involving wormholes is a bit of a mixed message…. Congrats on the optimization problem!

  91. First Last

    Coordinate singularities: the gimbal lock of numerical math :-)

  92. Le Rebel Flagship

    This is probably the best wormhole render on YouTube. Good job with the visuals!

  93. Roverson Melo

    Me: I’m tired of all this pandemia talks.
    Youtube: Here, watch this.
    Me: Wow!

  94. tariq ahmad

    This is the best rendering I’ve ever seen. Plus it’s weird to look at

  95. GabrielG.A.B. Fonseca

    > A world-renowned astrophysicist and an entire big-budget Hollywood special effects company:
    _”We made this wormhole raytracing renderer, but it has a problem with the poles of the coordinate system where we run into singularities.”_

    > Scott Manley:

    _”There, fixed it for you.”_
    _”Oh, it’s also twice as fast now.”_

  96. GreyGeek

    Calling your solution clever is an understatement.

  97. James Trexler

    I reeeealy want to see a sequence where two starships (totally ignoring orbital dynamics a la Star Trek) chase one another around the wormhole and get progressively closer to it. From the point of view of one, would it eventually look like the other is both in front and behind? Also, imagine the wonky phaser fire…

  98. Benjamin Lefebvre

    This is impressive. Did anyone think of the polar rotating trick before? You could publish a paper on this!

  99. Karl West

    Today I realised that Scott Manley is a 5 dimensional being

  100. Aubrey Freeman

    Everyone during Coronavirus: “I’m going to sit around and wait it out.”
    Scott Manley during coronavirus: “Here’s how you render a wormhole for lower 3 dimensional beings!”

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