How Stars Freeze

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When you think of a frozen object in space, you might think of Pluto, but stars themselves actually freeze.

Interview with Chuck Horowitz, theoretical nuclear astrophysicist at Indiana University:

Tags: scishow, scishow space, Space, Science, hank green, astrophysics, astronomy, stars, ice, sun, neutron, star quake

  1. JR4996

    It is possible to land and escape from a frozen star?

  2. This_Is_Japes

    1:27 ah so it’s conductive, good.

  3. August

    Props to Hank. I feel like every SciShow I’ve watched in the last forever has been him hosting. Love it. ♥️

  4. Igor Souza

    Wait, why do you say that in neutron stars the protons and electrons have merged together, and then later say “the nuclei squeeze so closely…”
    There shouldn’t be much nuclei at this point, based on what was said earlier…

  5. jmautobot

    How long will it take for a white dwarf to cool enough to handle by our own hands? And will there still be magnetic field, radiation, Very Bad Things?

  6. Eddy A.

    Iron stars and low energy photons and no more entropy meaning time loses all meaning.

  7. Sergey Kolokolov

    Love when Hank hosts!

  8. drakedbz

    Neutron stars are so incredible. They’re essentially one massive atomic nucleus.

  9. Matthew Talbot

    I’m pretty sure that there hasn’t been nearly enough time for even the oldest white dwarf stars to cool into what would be called ‘black dwarfs’. Then again I’m no astrophysicist, but i do watch a lot of PBS SpaceTime. whats even more wild, is that these cooled former white dwarf remnants may yet explode in a theoretical ‘black dwarf supernova’ via quantum processes trillions of years after they originally died.

  10. TheJudgmentalCat

    I heard “neutron star crust” and said “starquakes!” just before he did…cuz I have a big brain (i.e. watched a lot of astronomy shows) 😁

  11. Adam Ruhnke

    I understand that by freeze we are meaning become a solid, but what I wonder is does a star work back through the states of matter to solid? Meaning, does a plasma star turn into a gas which turns into a liquid which then turns into a solid, or does it skip those steps all together?

  12. Just this guy Beeblbrox

    So a star freezes at some millions of degrees c. Do they remain radioactive and do they ever reach an actual cool temperature?

  13. Matt Bruce

    2:50 How is it possible that matter can become a crystalized lattice at millions of degrees celsius?

  14. GeorgePlaysGames

    Oh so your talking about when a White dwarf cools all the way down an becomes a semi large chunk of frozen metal in space? considering that process takes longer than the Universe has even existed… why are we talking about it?

  15. Nikolai P.

    These dwarfs are so bizzare that I wouldn’t be surprised to learn they can grow beards next time.

  16. phil1963100

    Wonderful video, absolutely fascinating. Thanks for the great work!

  17. WormholeJim

    The crystalline crust of a neutron star. I bet that would make for some awesome magical swords. Some awesome quests to get it.

  18. Interceptorex

    Starquakes must be terribly powerful to crack open something 10 billion times tougher than steel.

  19. Craig Ferguson

    With a title like “How Stars Freeze” you should mention that black holes are actually frozen.

  20. Bob Man

    So there are planets out there now orbiting a planet that was once a sun.

  21. Absurd Bird

    I didn’t realise ‘Twinkle Twinkle, Little Star’ was scientifically accurate with the _”like a diamond in the sky”_ part

  22. Saka Mulia

    @2:55 Freezes at millions °C! Yikes! That’s toasty.

  23. Kevin Haynes

    A question. The early Universe must have been extremely dense, or in your words, “ridiculously dense”. Denser than a rock, denser than planet Earth, denser than a White Dwarf. As we would characterize a rock as being solid, for how long was the early Universe an expanding solid sphere!?

  24. Julio Leon

    I wonder if the galaxy arms also have laminar flow properties on a larger scale. would we ever run into another system if the edges are flowing slower or faster depending on the physics? Would that add to the Drake equation?

  25. GraveUypo

    pbs spacetime: trillions of times denser at the crust, quintillions of times denser at the core
    scishow space: very dense

    pbs spacetime: spaghetti phase, lasagna phase, swiss cheese phase
    scishow: all sorts of shapes

    i think i have a favorite.

  26. Nicholas Turner

    Don’t give Bezos any ideas…

  27. Brian Brueshaber

    Shine on, you crazy diamond.

  28. BigBadBeef

    I wonder how will an artist make a rendering of a cooled white dwarf!

  29. Cinnah

    I wonder, with all other inhospitability issues aside, in the process of a star cooling, is there any point at which it would be a temperature where a human could viably stand on it?

  30. anselhelm

    “How stars crystallise” – FIFY

  31. WTony OrrDavis

    Yeah so does the charcoal in the grill by morning in Colorado but yeah far less stacking

  32. shingshongshamalama

    I had no idea that Ray Romano was popular in outer space too!

  33. ImmortalHerpDerp

    There hasn’t been enough time in the universe for “frozen stars” to occur. Death of a white dwarf takes quadrillions of years or some sh** like that

  34. Doc Moe

    Ah, so the Chrysler and Mitsubishi partnership (Diamond-Star Motors) in the 80s/90s was on to something, eh.

  35. chiron

    Continuous sound bites without a gap makes it difficult to listen.

  36. Kazi Aftab

    All I want to know is, do neuton stars Emit light in the visible spectrum?

  37. Baji Kayy

    THATS IT Im still putting my bet there are invisible stars out there that can melt or freeze,

  38. Greg Street

    This space science is cool and all. But how can we decipher all of this info without ever landing on one. There’s no way a telescope or some long range pictures can be this accurate

  39. The Origami Genius

    These videos feeds me so much new information I never knew about!

  40. Jessica P

    Doctor Who predicted a freezing star.

    This was a great episode.

  41. Shinyhero306

    Hmm the frozen star looks a little like the traveler
    Let’s see
    Is the great machine a frozen mini Dyson sphere?

  42. Stevenco9124

    Freezing stars….words have no meaning anymore. I supposed hell will freeze over isn’t the thing we thought it is, it’s just normal star stuff.

  43. Kenny Carter

    Maybe do a video on frozen stars… they haven’t formed yet. Imagine a frozen star has life in it’s cloud decks…..

  44. nariu 7times

    This was explained so well, thank you Sci Show team!

  45. MusicalRaichu

    But on Doctor Who, the Doctor ridiculed the idea that stars can be frozen and worked out when he saw one that it must be a dream.

  46. Adam Latosiński

    Neutron stars contain frozen pasta. No one has yet build a microwave big enough.

  47. AZebraReads

    So… once again Doctor Who is predicting the future 😂🥶

  48. cy

    most misleading title ever 😂

  49. Junker Veld

    The ragged bear specifically include because territory strangely fix aboard a second octagon. overt, spiritual doctor

  50. A Henderson

    Minus the gravity issue, could theoretically we land on one?

  51. Christopher Noel

    I like this episode—it’s very thorough.
    Comment reposted due to a distasteful troll.

  52. Jen Klen

    I heard ya, Hank, but I just didn’t understand you. 😂😂

  53. Einstein X

    3:26 I’ve learned a long time ago in school about how a neutron can capture an electron and become a proton, but I still don’t get it.
    If one looks inside a neutron all the there is there are three quarks and a whole bunch of gluons, but there is not an individual electron floating around inside the neutron. So what happens to the electron when it gets captured? I guess that the electron’s mass and charge get converted into the mass and charge of a quark, but how? And since an electron doesn’t have a color charge and quarks do, how does the color charge for the quarks get created? Does the color charge come from let’s say red and anti-red being created?

  54. gerald

    afaik, re: neutron stars, under crust you get neutron spaghetti and further down you get sheets of these — neutron lasagna.

  55. Maple Hufflepuff

    A frozen/cold star was in an episode of doctor who, It has the 11th doctor, Amy and rory.

  56. Da1ienx

    imagine if you could walk on the surface of a frozen white dwarf… (without being crushed into a thin paste that is)

  57. Corey

    Are they dim? Can the frozen stars be seen in the visual or infrared? Are there just cold and dark earth sized diamonds floating about?

  58. kinn grimm

    alien husband: “Honey, i have problems wraping your diamond ring”

  59. Cayne Clampit

    The idea that there could be planet sized crystal spheres floating around in space is just awe inspiring

  60. ThePopeOfDope

    I would want to correct you guys on 1 thing. Carbon and Oxygen are the leftover products of helium burning. Not hydrogen.

  61. Ligh7 Foo7

    Elsa invites all astronomers to the Frozen crystal ball, we now have the location, we now need a means to travel there.

  62. Disk Horse

    You got your translational. You got your rotational. You got your vibrational.
    Energy, that is.

  63. Dragojuice

    well, good news, if humans survive long enough we wouldnt have to worry about the earth running out of fuel, we’ll be worrying about the universe running out of fuel

  64. Nathan

    I wonder what the gravity is on the surface of the crystalline star…

  65. Stevie-Ray

    ….& I thought most football-players were really dense!

  66. Andrea

    Always interesting!!

  67. aerozord

    Has there been enough time for dwarfs to form and freeze?

  68. Machina

    White dwarfs take “Shine bright like a diamond” to a whole new level.

  69. Alyssa Schinner

    do they still glow after they’re frozen? Does it actually look like a crystal?

  70. Deep Recce

    As advertised, “Diamonds are indeed forever!” 😀

  71. Tristan Grimaux

    So… there are diamonds the size of a planet IN SPACE?

  72. New Message

    There’s an energy drink title in this somewhere…

  73. Aidan Or

    Do diamond stars tinkle more than other stars?

  74. Kyle Davis

    White dwarves: mmm yes diamond
    Neutron stars: mama Mia lika tha spaghetti

  75. Karina

    White dwarfs don’t get enough credit. I suspect it they were called diamond stars they would seem more interesting to other people.

  76. Ice 487

    This is probably the closest one can get to freezing light itself.

  77. Restoration of Identity

    What a fantastic educational video.. never knew stars are this intresting. 🤓😁

  78. Andrew Via

    Hank Green is the narrator against whom all others are measured. No pressure! (Well, actually, Caitlin is as good as Hank.)

  79. Troller Zocker

    That thing in the thumbnail: It really looks like the traceler from the “Destiny” video game xD

  80. Ben

    How could you talk about Neutron Stars and not nuclear pasta?

  81. Author B.L. Alley

    Reading suggestion for the viewers: Dragon’s Egg and Starquake by Robert L Forward.

  82. Todd Starbuck

    What would it take to blast off a chunk of this material? What would those chunks be like?

  83. Alan McKinnon

    Hah! I watched half way through, confused, before I realised that “freeze” means “become solid” and not “become cold” :-)

  84. Rezcuz

    Got me thinking it was about temperature at first

  85. Paul Walsh

    Any guestimates at how many carats a diamond star would be ? My fiancée needs to know…

  86. gammerbro567

    “🎵… like a diamond in the sky… 🎵”

  87. Ali Syed

    I live for Neutron star content.

  88. Malice Flare

    heh, a crystallized star? i am reminded of an old animated movie in the 80s about a Star Stealer trying to steal a giant diamond star…

  89. Lab Rat

    If a star freezes it can’t be called a star can it?
    If said diamond star came close to a smaller star what would happen?
    If said Diamond was able to absorb a smaller star or vice versa would it reignite or just turn into something like Jupiter a super large diamond with a really hot atmosphere?

  90. Canadian Troll

    How difficult would be to land on a frozen star (a regular black dwarf)?
    Is it possible to “mine” a frozen star for material? 🤔🚀🚀🚀

  91. BarneySaysHi

    Looking for white dwarfs is some Sirius business!

  92. jacobcoolguy

    A perfectly round, hollow sphere of metal that is durable and thick enough to withstand the soupy insides of a neutron star? Now if we could only get this Dyson Sphere machine to give us the shell somehow…

  93. Christine Sinclair

    Holy crap, the Rainbrow Brite movie got something right?!?!

  94. MRGRUMPY53

    Question: How do Stars freeze?………Answer: They Move to Minnesota.

  95. cee kay

    “In this universe there is only one absolute…
    Everything FREEZES”
    -Former Governor of California, Mr. Freeze (A.k.a Arnold Schwarzenegger)

  96. AbeEstosRuinsAGeneration

    This is so cool. If stars freezing isn’t enough to pique your interest, I don’t know what is.

  97. Roger Szmodis

    The deeper into a neutron star you get there are fewer and fewer protons left due to electron capture so there is no electric repulsion. It’s more neutron degeneracy pressure but even that’s not enough and the neutrons eventually get split into quarks.

  98. Michael McChesney

    Is there any difference between a neutron formed by forcing a proton and electron together in a neutron star and a neutron that could be found on Earth? Theoretically, would there be a way to tell them apart?

  99. Mathieu Leader

    Frozen stars make me think of the Dr. Who episode Amy’s Choice with the TARDIS hurtling towards a cold star

  100. SciShow Space

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