Surprising Findings About Radiation on Mars During a Manned Mission

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Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about new discoveries about the dangers of radiation during a potential mission to Mars,_Mazandaran

NASA Ames Research Center
Spazturtle , CC BY-SA 4.0 ,
Napy1kenobi  , CC BY-SA 3.0 ,
Wolfgang Staudt , CC BY 2.0 ,,_late_afternoon.jpg
Frank Schulenburg , CC BY-SA 3.0 ,,_Big_Island.jpg
SiminEbrahimi , CC BY-SA 4.0 ,,_Mazandaran#/media/File:Ramsar_Hotel_Boulevard.jpg
Mehr News Agency , CC BY 4.0 ,,_Mazandaran#/media/File:Ramsar_skyline_2019.jpg
Fars News Agency , CC BY 4.0 ,,_Mazandaran#/media/File:Bonyad-e_Pahlavi_Hotel_2019-11-05.jpg

Tags: anton petrov, science, physics, astrophysics, astronomy, universe, whatdamath, what da math, technology, steven universe, mars radiation, mars mission, is living on mars safe, martian radiation, radiation, alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, ionizing radiation, radon, radon on earth, radiation on mars, rad on curiosity, solar energetic particles, galactic rays, galactic cosmic ray, martian mission, butte, martian butte, ramsar, ramsar iran, iran, ramsar radiation

  1. Serge Alary

    900K subscribers is around the corner, next 1M! Go Anton! Love what you do.

  2. Daniel O'Kane

    Always fascinating and amazing content thank you Anton.

  3. Brad Haaf

    Would it be fair to say that we are exposed to so much radon because we have 10,000 mines digging out a giga tons of minerals.. ? If we started doing the same on Mars would any long-term civilization not end up being exposed to that as well as the cosmic sources ?

  4. ModernProspector

    I’ve got my pick and shovel ready to dig tunnels and mine Martian gemstones. Put me in coach.

  5. Donald Michael Lumsden

    Hello Anton .
    For some time I have been pondering on how we can build a lite shield on a spacehip that can protect humans from harmful radiation during long term voyages in space .
    One of my ideas was a hydrogen electon field inside a hollow area of a spaceship as a shield. .
    I will be greatly interested in what a person such as yourself comes up with ..

  6. Luis Alejandro Santana

    Hello Anton. Do you know if the first human mission plans to take 3D printers to Mars? And, could they take shelter underground in caves? What about side effects of Mars’ gravity once they return years later?

  7. Dan T

    Anton: we dont know yet the long term affects of living here for the locals
    The city is 4000 years old!

  8. Ian Williams

    What about creating artificial magnetospheres around spacecraft or bases? This would appear to be the solution but it’s rarely mentioned?

  9. fps 079

    Thank you Anton. Lots of ifs, lots of maybes, lots of assumptions. Mars is out of reach with current tech. One coronal mass ejection unfortunately placed and that would be the end.

  10. SOVA Rides

    I’d like to see a video just about the town. This is more information that a lot of people would be willing to digest, but a summary on the studies there would be good. People are unnecessarily afraid of radiation.

  11. Oda Punkt

    Thank you Anton :) the radium in that city makes me think of the radium girls, clearly it did not boost their immune system. But it would be super interesting if there is a sweet spot to ionising radiation. Also maybe if you stay at a place with high radiation over time, your body actually becomes more resistant to its effects somehow. I mean infrared is non ionising of course, but it is considered super healthy for the human body and helping cell repair etc

  12. Edwin Bruckner

    Finding a suitable/large enough cave or tunnel system seems like the most logical thing to do in the first place. Keeps away the sun and other radiation and probably a lot of dust in the long run. We are cavemen afterall. Don’t forget the shovels and pickaxles, were gonna need them.

  13. 6NBERLS

    Most excellent. I learned a lot of new things from this video. It will require more than one viewing to soak up all the information. Thank you very much Anton.

  14. Donna Radu

    Thanks for this upload Anton. Could you please do a show on trans-Neptunian objects? Thank you for all you do!

  15. monnoo

    hehehe, now you gaveElon a business idea! he will come up with a dust spa :)

  16. slackalopeYT

    Anton you are awesome. You bring a little “light” into the world in the form of knowledge that is pleasing and well explained.

    Thank you so much.

  17. Mort Kebab

    Since xenon seepage is less of a problem on Mars then surely living in lava tubes would be the best option, along with drones to explore and mine the surface, and nuclear rockets to get there fast.

  18. aurora m

    Thank you wonderful Anton! I never loved learning so much until I found your channel. 🙏🏼

  19. Wendy Woo

    Such high quality images in your videos. Love the content ❤🇬🇧

  20. Fred Bloggs

    Thankyou Anton. How fascinating. Feels a little like we used to think people would suffocate if they went too fast in early cars…

  21. Zak LeClaire

    Howdy comrade! Know what would be totally awesome of you to do a video on? Explaining the differences between ioning and non-ionizing radiation, how both effect the body in different ways, and sort of compare the differences between, let’s say, a high intensity microwave emitter (non-ionizing) vs, let’s say, exposure to neutron radiation.

  22. Sleekoduck

    Patterson, New Jersey, in the United States learned a little about the “benefits” of radiation a century ago. They used to drink radium water and gargle it for health and paint themselves with radium makeup. The radium girls painted watch hands with radium and discarded their paintbrushes behind the factory. There were still parts of the city you could not go to in the 1990s, maybe today.

  23. Sonorus Robustice

    Interesting Anton. Radiation is one thing our species has had to deal with for the duration of our existence here. In the short term it’s a cancer risk but long term it is thought to have initiated mutations that may have helped our evolution. One thing that has stayed the same over the course of the whole picture however is our gravity. So it’s probable that reduced gravity may be worse on the body over the long run.

  24. John Stopman

    Hello wonderful Anton! Thank you for all your wonderful uploads! :-)

  25. Rick

    If the houses themselves are what’s causing the high levels of radiation, then Mars should be even ‘safer’ to live. The Iranian population has no shelter from the radiation inside their own homes, unlike the lightly shielded habitats on Mars. And the Iranians spend more time outside (where the levels are also 50 times as high) in the resort than the astronauts on Mars would spend on the Martian surface.

  26. Reza Dehghani

    Thanks, Anton. For me as an Iranian, although I live in Germany, it is really good to know Ramsar is so radioactive :D

  27. Shaun Olson

    Thanks for the information Anton. I was wondering why are we trying to jump to Mars when we haven’t even had full exploration of the moon? I would like to know what’s inside the moon.. I’m sure you’re equally curious. Thanks!

  28. DELTACX10

    7:25 I think we have a solution for that problem. The military has used spaced armor for years and one of it’s advantages is stopping fragments of armor from killing the crew inside tanks and other vehicles. The projectile hits the first layer, detonates then the other layer stops the armor fragments from the outer layer.

  29. Miki Cerise

    On the ship I think you’d want a small lead-lined safe room to shelter in during solar storms and a relatively porous outer hull so particles don’t get trapped in the ship. On Mars… you’re going to want a sun shade, of course.

  30. DELTACX10

    Love how we have all these cool names for types of radiation from various particles yet we have one just called neutron.

  31. Notorious ROSCOE

    I’m looking forward to news of earthly robots exploring the apparently more sensible Martian-exploration bases, Deimos and Phobos.

  32. Magnus B

    Getting research done in the Iranian city is likely high on the “want to do list” for both NASA & Elon

  33. Christmas Snow

    For long-term stays, we can develop our underground building techniques. The initial extra effort is worth it, and we can test it on the moon. Later, creating artificial magnetic fields for our sorties and shielding our vehicles becomes a common practice.

  34. Kavin Ravichandran

    How in the world does this man keep uploading so much content everyday? Anton do you ever sleep at night? Either way I am so grateful to have found a channel like this! I just hope you take it easy sometimes so you don’t burn out!

  35. Galant Human

    Thanks for telling me that Ramsar is the most naturally radioactive town on earth. Sadly it is 10 years to late. It is a very beautiful town though.

  36. Ed Racette

    humans would need to spend their time indoors or underground, it is a hostile environment even without the radiation, and when we venture out, we would be fully suited. it is not like we would even suntan out in the open there

  37. Tony Lalangue

    Note: Xenon gas is outgassed from below us . So basements tend to have the highest levels of this noble gas. Being heavier than the gasses we breathe, it tends to settle. we need some air exchange to remove it.

  38. Nigel Cockburn

    Very informative, well presented, Well done Anton. Thank you.

  39. Fred Planatia

    Thank you Anton. A very interesting video. Two comments:
    – A 5% change in radiation is just one factor in determining a good location for a habitat. Other features also would contribute to choice of location, like the availability of important resources (esp. water ice).

    – I don’t see why scientists can’t exchange information on the effects of radiation in Ramsar, just as they have done in other situations where politics complicated discussion about certain topics.

  40. Ck digital The Q of 6th

    I’ve tried to explain this small kids and relatives, humans would still have to render in bubbles, in foundations, facilities, flight stations, and bio harvest. As well in glass transition and texture, outdoors must be with a space gear. Even NASA never considered this, just assumed sending astronauts to trip jump and do selfies, then head back. This rendered logic for a while.

  41. Packrat

    Very Interesting! Thank you Anton.

  42. Stefania Smanio

    Hi Anton! Such a great job are you doing for us! Thank you so much! ❤️👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👌👋🏻

  43. Koss Billingham

    I wonder how long it’s going to be until Elon has a prototype magnetic shield. I also do not envy the person that had to run the MCNP models for the data in this study.

  44. Leszek Kadelski

    About Ramsar – at the begining you said there on Earth we are dealing mostly with alpha particles (and I assume that’s the is true for Ramsar), while on Mars there are other kinds of radiation. It seems it might be comparable in absolute values, but the effects could be vastly different… or am I missing something?

  45. Luis Aldamiz

    Four years, make it two for safety reasons (and because the Mars cycle is of around two years). It means that Earth needs to be sending 2-3 replacement expeditions every two years if permanent presence Antarctica-style is meant to be achieved. I say 2-3 expeditions because one can fail for any random reason like a hurricane over Florida, so 1-2 backups seem necessary.

  46. frglee

    Aberdeen in Scotland has a high level of natural radiation, caused by being located on granite rocks with radon leaking through cracks and fissures into buildings. There are ways of dissipating radon with ventilation methods. There are several other places in the UK with high radon levels, usually caused by granite rocks below. Radon gas is thought to be the second biggest cause of lung cancer. But as in Ramsar, it doesn’t seem there are cancer clusters as a result.

  47. Nathaniel Pontinovitz

    When you scream so loud that glass breaks this is radiation

  48. Colleen Forrest

    10 feet (3 meters) of dirt is generally accepted to be enough to protect from cosmic rays, so visualize all those artistic habitat drawings covered with dirt.

    Plastic is a safer material than metal. Plastic doesn’t emit secondary radiation inside the vehicle. If we put a 2 inch plastic dome over a small crater and filled the cavity with air (assuming this cavity is air tight), the combination of plastic and air above is enough to those on the surface from the radiation

  49. Amal Lee

    Anton, are you familiar with the reasoning behind the radiation safe dosing standards? They are based on something called LNT, or linear no threshold theory. It’s an arbitrary standard an assumption that does not agree with actual observations. It assumes that low doses over a long time is equivalent to high doses in a short period. Complete bunk, but the official standard. Look into it.

  50. Graeme Brumfitt

    I watched a program a while back about Chernobyl and its radiation, I think Ramsar must have been the beach they mentioned as being more radioactive than Chernobyl @ the time of making said program! TFS, GB :)

  51. Jeremie Miller

    Anton, it looks like you’re using a video clip of the sulphur springs near Mt. Fuji while speaking about Iran. 😉

  52. Jesus Garza

    I would just like to say ty for what you do Anton

  53. Gian Luca Garattoni

    Really fascinating video, wonderful Anton!

  54. Robert Miller

    The danger of secondary radiation was known before the ISS was built: Zubrin mentions it in The Case for Mars.

    Frankly I expect Martian explorers-even the earliest ones-to do most of their surface work with drones. Having a human nearby, in speed-of-light terms, is what does the trick.

  55. Jeremy Siegel

    Makes sense that certain doses of radiation could be therapeutic when it’s known that higher levels can be harmful, especially when considering that such lower levels may assist our immune system in dealing with pathogens that have a lower tolerance to radiation than our cells have. Without knowing the relative tolerances, though, who knows, it’s basically the same as the claims made by companies that sell radium-laced products.

  56. It's Not THAT Complicated

    Anton, your upload schedule and the amount of intelligent and accurate research on these videos is unparalleled. Thank you for the increased content and making me a better human, expanding my mind. You’re doing such great work. I hope you know how much your videos help so many people.

  57. flashgordon

    basically, we need 1 ) nuclear powered superconductor magnetic shields , and 2 ) layers of radiation shielding.

  58. Ron Saenz

    Wow! I always enjoy learning something new from this channel. Keep up the wonderful work!

  59. Ian from Space

    RADIOACTIVITY WILL MAKE ME SUPERHUMAN. Got it. Thanks for the tip Anton! <3 i'm kidding of course

  60. Geoff Strickler

    The levels in Ramsar aren’t drastically higher than those in The coastal parts of Kerala, India or Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which are two much more populous areas with similar (but lower) levels of natural radioactivity. Both of those areas also have lower than average cancer rates and Kerala has well above average lifespan. All of these areas cast serious doubt on the “no safe level” and “linear no threshold” theories of radiation effects on animal life.

    Yes, we know that there are unsafe levels, for both short-term, and long-term exposures. But the evidence is mounting that there is a threshold level below which ionizing radiation is not harmful. Whether there is any level below that threshold which has a net beneficial effect is less clear. There is some evidence to support that premise, but it’s not as compelling as the evidence of no net harm.

  61. Kelly Berger

    I look forward to these videos so much. Thank you Anton, you are a wonderful science communicator.

  62. JimA Anders

    This sounds like good news for dealing with radiation.
    Still, a big catch is: how will humans deal with low gravity?
    After a few years on Mars, can they return to Earth?

  63. S D

    Right now, all scenarios are like “hey, let’s fry them until they are half-cooked to death, and then pull them out.” You would be safer trying to live in a microwave oven.
    I’ve always thought that sending thousands of little probes everywhere is much safer, cheaper, effective, and productive. We would learn so much more.
    It would be better to colonize Antarctica or the ocean.

  64. just me

    If one takes a look at the life expectancy even here on earth over just the last couple of centuries it is safe to assume that we will find ways to overcome many things that seem rather impossible.

  65. 101perspective

    I suspect that the problem with our understanding of radiation is that often they look at levels they know will kill you and then draw a line from that down to zero on a graph and base the safety of that radiation on that line. When in reality it is probably more of a curve.
    That town is a good example of this.
    Another example would be Radon in homes. They looked at miners who got sick after massive doses of radon and never really did any major studies of it at lower levels. They just draw that line and call it a day. We can see the error in this though when you consider that a banana lets off more radon that what is considered safe by that graph. And we are eating those…lol. So, clearly, Radon is a curve and that we haven’t worked out yet.

  66. rdizzy1

    There have also been studies where they created small, portable , directional “magnetospheres” that act like directional shields for ionizing radiation. These could be used by ships, or small colonies to protect capsules with people in them.

  67. Jbot123

    “Safe” with regards to the radiation maybe. There’s still a lot more ways for something like that to go wrong than to go right. I still think we should go, and keep going even when bad things happen. We never would have set out across the oceans if we waited for everything to be safe first.

  68. itheuser First

    What we’ve done on Mars so far is an engineering marvel. Still, Mars seems like one of the least interesting places to explore.

  69. Brett H

    It was interesting to learn about galactic cosmic radiation and how it is modulated by the solar cycle.

  70. Barrie Wright

    I pray too god, that I hope I live long enough to see that day. that humanity lands on Mar’s,and that will be the beginner of the human race exploration of the universe. Brilliant show anton brilliant, thank you for the education and the mind expansion.

  71. Sal Newton

    -102k for a million. Almost there, let’s do this.

  72. Thomas Maier

    Thanks, Anton. I grew up in a rural area in the southern USA, fascinated with the night sky, wondering what was out there, in all those beautiful stars. We live for hardly the flash of a second in the real scheme of time, and in our brief moments here on this amazing planet, look out beyond anything we can ever imagine. We’re part of all that, made of star stuff, looking back on what we came from. You bring this wonder back to me, as I approach nearly seven decades of existence. Thank you for this channel, and the way you present all that we know, but also all we can’t possibly understand… yet.

  73. Thomas Carrington

    I never knew I was a wonderful person until I came here by accident. I will never set my mm’s house on fire again. Thanks, Anton.

  74. ticktick BOOOM

    I seem to remember reading somewhere that people in places with elevated radiation are healthier than those in places with low radiation. I chalk it up to, ‘That which does not kill me, makes me stronger.’

  75. Linda Rocco

    @Anton Petrov Thank you for another very interesting presentation. I did not know about Ramsar being so radioactive. A DNA analysis compared to neighboring areas might prove interesting as well.

  76. Tymko C

    3:27 You stated Mars lacks an atmosphere. Mars does have an atmosphere, although much thinner than Earth’s. Also, the high concentration of Xenon-129 in Martian atmosphere is puzzling.

  77. Peter Breis

    Thanks Anton. A known problem, and a wake up for those bold suicide pioneers who want to go on one way trips to Mars.

    Any information on exactly how much protection lava tubes on both Mars and the moon offer? Along with regolith piled up around habitation?

    More crucial is how it would affect plants grown in either location.

  78. TimberwolfCY

    Fascinating as always Anton. Thank you! 🖖

  79. Mary Ann Bittle

    Thank you, Anton, for what you do for science literacy for the world! Stay wonderful!

  80. John Salinas

    The astronauts can limit their exposure to radiation from the sun by only working outside at night. During the day, they can stay sheltered in a habitat shielded by martian regolith or a meter think water tank that’s wrapped around the top and sides of the hab.

  81. Yann Landrin-Schweitzer

    Complex and challenging… but it remains that building underground is the simplest, most obvious and most sustainable method to manage environmental “exposure” of any kind on an exoplanet… and 3d printed buildings have a serious chance of making these be available before human landings

  82. Thoraxe41

    So we should send Persian Astronauts to Mars.

  83. XxThe Awoken OnexX

    Thankyou for another wonderful video Anton.

  84. Major Problems

    I love that title. Going to Mars is arguably the greatest endeavor humanity will undertake to date. That title makes it sound like we have decided to pop over to the cinema and catch a movie.

    Ahhhh darnit. The thumbnail, not the title. “When we decide to visit” like we are swinging past the grocery store for eggs.

  85. D RiteMoLawzBks

    Why is Anton pretending like he’s not already on Mars filming these videos?

  86. Kevin Wilson

    Need to get Anton to 1 million subscribers. Great stuff!

  87. Ride TheCurve

    “What’s happening? The radiation meter is red-lining, sir!” Hudson, We Are Leaving!”

  88. Lance McLaren

    Sounds like we need to recruit our martian explorers from the wonderful people from Ramsar just to be on the safe side.

  89. 3DSergio

    This reminds me of the demon from zatch bell zoffis whose spell is Radom

  90. CkFeeful

    hope we already growing some kind of fungi outside the iss, evolving into a radioactive absorbing protection shield

  91. Tempus Fugit

    maybe we are all just extra emotional today,. but Meng i love you! you make my days lately. find us a new planet and the tech to get there.. we all will help.

  92. sultan khan

    Thank God I’m finally a little less afraid of radiation now..🤗🤗

  93. Steve Sloan

    There is a difference between being the result of numerous generations living in such a place, as compared to you going there and receiving first time radiation exposure as far as human genetics are concerned.

  94. Steve Sloan

    The granite city, Edinburgh Scottland, is naturally radioactive. The population there has been studied for long term radiation exposure vs. Multi-generational radiation exposure.

  95. Jim Curtis

    Wonderful as always anton 😊👍

  96. HaiDefinitions

    Imagin Mars becomes an resort and regeneration center because of the radiation that surprisingly is good for your health

  97. Ingrid Schmid

    Great a good reason to engage with Iran again .

  98. Damian Curie

    Thank you Anton for giving me a new IQ point each video.

  99. Damondo DBN

    Here in Ireland I listen before bed each night

  100. vermasean

    “Hello Wonderful Anton, this is person!” -Not my quote, but one of the best comments I read on this channel! ❤️👋

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