Early Earth Expanded and Cracked – Creating Plate Tectonics

Click any button for sharing!

Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about a new analysis that suggests origins of the plate tectonics on Earth.
Paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17480-2
Plate tectonics simulation by Ian Webster: https://dinosaurpictures.org/ancient-earth/#200
Plate tectonic PHET sim: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/filter?levels=highSchool

  1. Susan Doerr

    God’s idea of an amusement ride and the tickets are free.

  2. Robert Smyk

    Please explain why the continents and oceans changed over time to become evenly spread and not massed together as one large continent and ocean. This seems to correlate with the sense and speed of rotation. If the moon was originally part of the earth’s crust then it was the part of crust that disappeared to become the ocean area surrounding pangea, no?

  3. John Marksman

    Were All Suns a planet for a few days decades centuries?

  4. tovarischkrasnyjeshi

    Ok, so why didn’t Venus or Mars undergo the process?

  5. ROB P

    I blame the moon

  6. Snippy Cutwell

    Sorry Anton, they are actually the bones of a giant that Odin slew.


    Are you enjoying your time onboard to the tr3b please reply with words if you would I really would like to know

  8. FutureSpeak

    Let’s talk about you and me. Let’s talk about all the good things and all the bad things that may be.

  9. Tyler Jordan

    You should ‘expand’ your repertoire Anton and ‘crack’ more jokes, it’d really ‘crack’ us up. Doing so would be a real tectonic shift in your production and would change our world.

  10. Eric Pilkington

    It seems common sense that it is only expansion. To believe the plates have been floating around aka “plate tectonics” into different type of ancient megacontinents just to fulfill the geological and biological overlapping data will probably be considered ludicrous in the future.

  11. Osmosis Jones

    Critical fluid is called plasma.
    And maybe the oceans have habitual zones.
    Such pressure on the core cause vulcanism making the higher zones of oceans more nurturing .
    . one cells can reduce in density is the DNA is folded less tightly maybe even 3 strands linked

  12. thijsjong

    Expanding earth theory. Why did anybody take that seriously. Where would the extra mass come from.
    Changes in size ok. But that much. Sigh. Thinking logically.

  13. Scuffed

    SO Questtttion… What if the moon was another planet in our solar system a long time ago and crashed into the earth?

  14. Armstrong Earth Being's,

    Nope, not complete study yet.
    Plate increases in movements are at a highest level of adjustment & my research is drawing me closer to these answer’s day after day. Armstrong Earth Being’s Tracker Channel Canada British Columbia.

  15. RockerRobin

    Ever review the expanding earth theory? The model animation is quite interesting and worked on not only earth but mars and the moon.

  16. Malachi Stone

    Lol 🤣 1:42 …. So earth doesn’t turn into hell like condition! Love it Anton!

  17. Tom

    The surface of the planet is just a joke to the 95% + rest of the planet 😃

  18. sorses

    is anyone else getting a weird buzzing sound in their left earphone?

  19. Ellen McGowen

    Hmm. I think the geological consensus is that Earth didn’t have plate tectonics in the Archean, and it had a thicker crust than today (~100 km), with stagnant lid tectonics (like Venus) or drip tectonics. The crust then was felsic rather than mafic as it is today. Magma plumes did create some island arcs, but there were no seafloor spreading zones nor subduction zones. There is also a hypothesis that Earth was a water world at this time, with only island arcs poking above the water.

    This all began to change in the later Archean and some subduction zones began to appear, and the beginnings of the first continent(s). Gradually, water was subducted below the crust (where about 2/3 of it remains today), the crust thinned and became mafic due to drip tectonics transporting siderophiles downwards, and by the Mesoproterozoic plate tectonics was in full operation.

    Also: The model in this paper hypothesizes crustal expansion in the Archean as the force creating plates. But both the Moon and Mars show evidence of shrinkage as they cooled in their earlier history.

  20. justin wolf

    🌏 💥 🌋 🌊 ⬅️➡️

  21. Rohit Kulshreshtha


  22. Dax Jacobson

    The virtual people that live on that virtual planet that you keep resizing are really pissed!

  23. jack daniels

    Year 2049: China has claimed the tectonic plates on the northern shelf as part of the mighty Chinese Empire and all fish will have to have a social score to prove there good fish and not trying to plot against the CCP!

  24. Martyn Notman

    Im pretty sure its so all the bazillion things in Australia that can kill you cant get to the rest of us…

  25. Erixoz

    How about that artist that says the Earth expanded from all land. He made an animation that made it look very real, but is laughed at by most.

  26. Carsten Maul

    Anton the arxiv presenter 🥳

  27. I’m already Sans Undertal

    Soon, Anton will be a new plate tectonic.

  28. Osmosis Jones

    Wouldn’t. Ocean planets like Kepler 22b or Kepler 62e&f or gliesa 1214b have subductions

  29. James Aron

    Wonderful plate tectonics

  30. [KDX] ACE The Fire Dagger

    Hello there.

  31. Annette Andersen

    What about the tidal forces of the Moon, both on the Earth crust and on the oceans shifting its weight around?
    It must have had some significant part in the cracking… but very interesting to find out more precisely what happened. Thank you for your allways good videos👍


    Wonderful 🙌😎👍

  33. NightRunner417

    I don’t know why, but I got blindsided by that rapid fire “Hello Wonderful Person” this time around. Almost inhaled my ridiculously hot beef stew, lol. Hello Wonderful Anton! Thanks as always for your great content and personality. :-)

  34. JeanYves Angers


  35. Thomas Pownall

    Dang 4 mins late.

  36. IMBwildrd

    Wait, what about volcanism and convection? The way I always saw it was that in order to have any kind of land mass you have to have had volcanism. ALL the original crust was created from volcanism, correct? Some volcanism created heavier crust (ocean crust) while others created lighter crust (continental crust). While all that is happening you have convection occurring in the molten layer below (well, the molten layer that is either cooling and becoming crust or erupting then cooling and becoming crust). The convection shifts the crust around, heavier crust sinks and subducts, lighter crust stays on top and experiences mountain building in the form of compression and volcanism. It’s really the molten outer core that is the driving force in continental genesis. This new theory may be true, and that’s fine, but I don’t believe it was the driving force behind the creation of the continents. I believe they were well on their way and the expansion was just a bonus. IMO

  37. Terry Owens

    So with the discovery of the new plate by Australia, would that alter the map of pangaea?

  38. Black Hole Generator

    Early earth fire ball must have been hit by all kind of stuff. Something super big that in parts remained as our moon as we see it today and quite the amount of big junks of rocks and ice i guess. That could’ve caused the crust to crack too when you think about it.

  39. Magic Hands

    But what about the ufo’s?

  40. christosvoskresye

    Stop saying “so-called”. Practically every time you use it, it is either unnecessary or simply wrong.


    Wanna know destruction in plate tectonics?
    Just drop a plate in kitchen and see your mama’s reaction 😂😂

  42. Skywalker Shadai

    Anyone interested in playing the What Da Math drinking game I made? Super simple really.. just take a shot Everytime that Anton uses the phrase ‘so-called’. Winner gets a virtual trophy inscribed with the title “Most Wonderful Person” and keeps it for the exact length of a day. 23 hours 56 minutes. 😁

  43. rJaune

    Do they have any ideas on how prevalent this situation would be on other Earth-like planets? Looking at the inner Solar System, it looks like 33%.

  44. Ken Lee

    Wrong, it wa The Cosmic Woodpecker Of Doom.

  45. Louis Anthes

    How does this apply to, for example, Enceladus or Pluto?

  46. oskar recon

    ,.lol,.next thing you’ll find out is that the idea of 1 big super continent is incredibly unlikely and irregular ,.

  47. James McHarry

    I once suggested the possibility of expansion of the earth during a geology class. I was the class TA. it didn’t go over well. The professor denied it’s possibility. Waa waa.

  48. Random Videos

    I doubt if the change in earth radius by 1km is rendered on screen. It will be less than a pixel wide, so may not even show at all

  49. Ralph Reed

    I think your conclusion about earth’s geology precipitating life is biological determinism, upside-down logically.

  50. Chris

    I think one of the first to suggestions was correct either it’s the weight of the the oceans that crack the surface or it could have been the impact that created the Moon

  51. Christian S

    What about aliens tho?

  52. Marshmallowmonster 77

    04:22 Wat?

  53. Robert Melvin

    Here’s my 2 cents of what I’ve always wondered: (1) matter in space accumulates. (2) Once the planet-like body accumulates a mass that yields a density [I don’t know this value] inward pressure liquifies the core. (3) Denser elements sink towards the core and lighter elements rise. (4) What would be the effect on the outer crust during the liquification process and the formation of gasses [yeah expansion of gasses in a confined space ….] within the planet? As to your boiled egg; I recommend taking an egg. Add a small hole to the top of the shell and drain. Next add water. Place in freezer and observe the fracture pattern to the shell.

  54. Baby Yoda

    Hello Dad. 🤗

  55. Moist-Mike

    That’s all well-and-good Anton, but why not Venus?

  56. MC's Creations

    So… Basically the earth is a failed popcorn? 🤔

  57. Jay Ellzey

    There will be a day when there is no oceans at all!! And probably has happened b4

  58. Caine Petaera

    Cool, in the first 1000 views lol

  59. fds fds

    Anton if you’ve never seen the hugely viral video from many years ago called chocolate rain by Tay Zonday you should absolutely watch it. He left a comment on this video!

  60. paradigm respawn

    Most of the Continents are Basically Limestone-based and Float on the Semi-liquid Mantle. Ocean Crust is motivated by Sea Floor Vulcanism and usually Subducts beneath the Continents.

  61. Fomalhaut

    As a worldbuilder I must say: holy HECK I wish that simulation was public, plate tectonics are a lot easier to do when a computer does them for you.

  62. Bram Moerman

    I took Geology 101 in the 1960s, long before Wegener’s theories were accepted. The explanations for mountain building were “interesting”, to put it mildly, although the “excellent prof” described the Himalayas being formed by India Crashing into Asia. . . Hmmmm. . .
    Tectonics create mountains, mountains create rivers, rivers are a necessity for life. QED

  63. erik nelson

    This is very interesting to think such a subtle change could in diameter could have meant life or death for any future organisms.

  64. MrReadandlearn

    With a more comprehensive study factoring in known accumulations of mass and energy we should be in a better position to predict earthquakes and major volcanic events.

  65. Ranch Dressing

    Good to see some pros are coming around.. even if slowly.

    The Earth never stopped expanding, it still is. Pangea is a ridiculous lie.

  66. Jonathan Ryals

    My idea is from watching molten metals, with the floating slag that forms. Like a poofy crust. Although i had thought the first supercontinent was from the “lunar” collision, and the huge scar on the surface that filled in became the first supercontinent.

  67. David Bridges

    Hi all 🧐
    I don’t know how to or where to ask Anton a question 🤔. The question….??
    How do magnespheres either shield or fry a moons and or planets atmosphere?? I mean I’ve heard that Jupiter’s magnetosphere is so powerful.. it just ⚡fries ⚡ everything..in or around it. Yet somehow our’s shields us..🤔🧐

  68. Lawrence Doe

    Plate tectonics happen on a macro scale every time you pop an M&M into your mouth.

  69. Kaptain Amerika

    and coming in third place is ME!

  70. V Ferox

    but there were a single continent in the beginning and the great ocean around it? What caused the difference in elevation between Pangaea and ocean floor?

  71. anonymous1hahaa

    i thought about this when looking at the ocean on google earth.

  72. BIG BOSS

    How is it going man I miss you

  73. GravelSwitch

    What software are you using to represent older continental configurations on earth?

  74. SundayRide Texas

    One of the best recent studies. Ty for video. <3 from Texas

  75. keith dubose

    “So called” you keep using these words but I don’t think you know what they mean ( :-) )

  76. Jake Russell

    That had to be a crazy day when the first crack appeared then all the cracks started.

  77. AdlockHungry

    I hope this turns out to be the case. I’ve worried that plate tectonics were turning out to be a unique or at least extremely rare phenomenon, rendering the probability equation for the Fermi Paradox all the more astronomical.

  78. goawaygoogle

    still leaves the question of how oceanic and continental plates came to be so different.
    could that be the result of the proto-earth-moon collision after these plates had been formed?

  79. Glenn R. Frank

    So, if this is how it happened on Earth: volcanism – material on the crust stacks up – starts to sink and melt – recycles and thickens on the continents – cracks form at the transitions of the thick and thin —Then WHY would it not happen like that on Venus? It had a very similar start to Earth. It has (at least now) a lot of vulcanism as far as we can tell and the whole surface seems to have been resurfaced by it in the past. Why would this “not special and natural process” as you are calling it, not have happened the same way on Venus?

  80. Future Dad

    I just came from Anton’s previous video xD such cool timing

  81. Tybie Fitzhugh

    I love the new thumbnail design! On my screen the video length is covering your face though (bottom right corner) maybe place your face on the left? Your channel is amazing!!! I love my mug and shirts, thanks for making this awesome channel!!

  82. GuidetteExpert

    Volcano make continents that come from the middle of the earth! Just like the way Iceland was made! I think its a way of the earth to get bigger as a planet.

  83. David Watson

    Let’s talk about earth, Yo.

  84. That Auto Garage

    Great video! Although I’m tired of all this speculation… make a video covering scientist building a time machine to witness these events please, thanks you from a person with realistic expectations.

  85. Thomas Pownall

    I’m just gonna say it, we live on the Binary Twin.


  86. MrConspark

    Anton! You started saying 20 Mya, then corrected, saying 20 my from the creation of planet earth. Besides a small error, another fantastic informative video, cheers from Gondwanna land

  87. al h

    Love the so called info and your so called expertise in these so called videos.
    I show so called gratitude

  88. Qwiet Ryott

    ” So called ” ?… or did you mean KNOWN ?

  89. M. Otto

    “it just happened naturally” what?

  90. Mark Evans

    One wonders what effect the earth’s rotation has on the plates through centrifugal forces. Any science on this?

  91. Jack

    Hello so called “wonderful person”, this is so called “Anton” and welcome to so called “What Da Math” xD

    JK JK Love ya Anton! Thanks for the curiosity sating videos, great as always!

  92. Christophe Breland

    i’d imagine the moon orbiting has a lot too do with it.

  93. Petra Kann

    So called continents?
    The expansion-crack theory is feasible and fits the geo-time line.
    If true, then one would expect continent formation and drift to be present on other terrestrial planets. Maybe even large moons

  94. SublimeSparo

    I always assumed that they were a result of Earth’s collision with Thea literally shattering the earths crust

  95. C-S featured

    It’s so incredible to think how we began as chemical reactions, that became cells which move about, then to organisms who are consciously trying to survive, then to intelligence who want to figure it all out.

  96. jack daniels

    Im so commited to this channel it still sais uploaded 56 seconds ago!

  97. robchilders

    Thanks for this. Interesting stuff. I’ve learned a lot in the last couple of years about how masses of land can move great distances. With the Juan de Fuca and Farallon Plates we now know a big chunk of Mexico ended up in the Pacific North West. The more we learn, the more amazing our universe really is.

  98. DartmanX

    I watch because noone else thinks I’m a wonderful person.

  99. Adymn Sani

    A while back a few decades, I met and talked with a person that held that the expanding Earth thinking was true and he had several reasons and he was whack-a-doodle.

  100. TayZonday

    Anton is like my father explaining the world to me when I was three, except I’m 38.

Comments are closed.